Tag: Bonding

Introduction to bonding

 Introduction to bonding When atoms combine with each other to form compounds, the process is called bonding. Atoms do this in order to achieve the stability of the closest Nobel gas (a full outer shell of electrons). Metals have only a few electrons in their outer shell (1-3) so they will readily lose these electrons…...

Ionic bonding

 Ionic bonding The transfer of electrons from one atom to another is called ionic bonding. This type of bonding occurs between metals and non-metals. The compounds formed are called ionic compounds. As stated previously, metals try to lose their outer electrons while non metals look to gain electrons to obtain a full outer shell. When…...

Ionic bonding part 2

 Ionic bonding part 2 Another example of ionic bonding is the blending of Beryllium and Fluorine to form beryllium fluoride. Beryllium has 2 outer electrons and as stated before metals will lose their outer electrons to obtain a full outer shell. Since fluorine needs to gain 1 electron to complete its outer shell and Beryllium…...

Properties of ionic compounds

Properties of ionic compounds There are properties that are shown by ionic compounds. These are: – Contains Ion – Have ions arrange in a fixed pattern called a crystal lattice – Are crystalline solids – Conducts electricity when molten or dissolved in water – Readily dissolve in water An example of the properties of ionic…...

Formulae of ions

Formulae of ions When metals lose electrons, they form positive ions, since they now have more protons than electrons. The charge on these ions is dependent on the number of electrons lost. So if the atom loses one electron, it has a +1 charge; if it loses two electrons, the charge is + 2 and…...

Combination of Ions

Combination of Ions As stated before when metals and non metals react the metals lose electrons and the non-metals gain electrons. The result is ions which are attracted by electrostatic forces of attraction (forces of attraction between opposite charges). Examples are shown below: 1) Sodium and Chlorine combine the result is sodium chloride. Na+ +…...

Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic ions These, as the name suggests, are ions that are made of more than one atom. These act like regular ions and will combine with other ions of opposite charge. These type of ions are shown below: Nitrate- NO31- Sulphate- SO42- Sulphite- SO32- Ammonium- NH41+ Example NO31- + Na1+ -> NaNO3 2NH41+ + SO42-…...

Metallic bonding

Metallic bonding There are strong forces of attraction within a metal and this is attributed to metallic bonding. Metals have a sea of delocalized electrons within its structure. These electrons have become detached and the remaining atoms have a positive charge. This positive charged is attracted to the delocalized sea of electrons due to electrostatic…...

Covalent bonding

Covalent bonding Covalent bonding is the type of bonding done between non-metal atoms only. There is no transfer of electrons in covalent bonding because the electrons are shared. The electrons shared are valence electrons (electrons in the outer shell) which results in a complete outer shell for each atom involved. Where “e” represent Electrons A…...

Covalent bonding part 2

Covalent bonding part 2 Many non-metal atoms form diatom molecules like oxygen as seen in the previous chapter. These are shown below: Diatomic Molecules Formulae Oxygen O2 Chlorine Cl2 Hydrogen H2 Nitrogen N2 Fluorine F2 Bromine Br2 Iodine I2 Above we see that Nitrogen forms a diatomic molecule. We know that nitrogen possesses 5 electrons…...