Human & Social Biology

Human & Social Biology Syllabus

HSB Past Papers

SECTION A: LIVING ORGANISMS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

SECTION B: LIFE PROCESSES

Nutrition

  • Describe the major nutrients and their sources;
  • State the function and the main sources of Vitamins A, B1, C, D and the minerals calcium and iron;
  • State the cause, symptoms and treatment of deficiency diseases;
  • Classify vitamins as fat or water soluble;
  • Perform tests to distinguish among food nutrients;
  • State the functions of water in the body;
  • State the role of dietary fibre in the body;
  • Describe the causes and effects of constipation and diarrhoea;
  • Explain what is meant by a balanced diet;
  • Explain the effects of malnutrition on the human body;
  • Determine Body Mass Index (BMI);
  • Use tables, charts and graphs to represent data on nutrition;
  • Relate the types of teeth present in an infant and an adult to their roles;
  • Describe the importance of teeth present in an infant and an adult human to their roles;
  • Describe the importance of teeth in the process of digestion;
  • Describe the structure and function of a typical tooth;
  • Relate the structures of tooth to their function;
  • State the causes of tooth decay;
  • Explain the properties, role and importance of enzymes involved in digestion;
  • Investigate the effects of temperature and pH on the activity of the enzymes amylase and catalase in the digestive process;
  • Identify the various structures of the digestive system;
  • Relate the structures of the digestive system to their functions;
  • Describe the process of digestion and absorption of food in the alimentary canal;
  • Describe what happens to the products of digestion after their absorption;
  • Describe the structure of a villus in relation to absorption;
  • Distinguish between egestion and excretion.

The Respiratory System

  • Explain the importance of breathing in humans;
  • Relate the structures of the respiratory tract to their functions;
  • Describe the breathing mechanism;
  • Outline the factors affecting the rate of breathing;
  • Explain the concept of vital capacity;
  • Distinguish between gaseous exchange and breathing;
  • Identify the characteristics common to gaseous exchange surfaces;
  • Differentiate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration;
  • Explain the role of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the transfer of energy;
  • Explain the technique of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation;
  • Explain the effects of cigarette smoking;
  • Use tables, graphs and charts to represent data on the respiratory system.

The Circulatory System

  • Explain the need for a transport system in the body;
  • Identify the materials which need to be transported around the human body;
  • Relate the structures of the heart to their functions;
  • Describe the structure and function of the heart;
  • Explain the concept of blood pressure;
  • Describe the structure and function of the circulatory system in humans;
  • Relate the components of the blood to its function;
  • Relate the structures of the arteries, veins and capillaries to their functions;
  • Relate the structures of red blood cells, phagocytes and lymphocytes to their functions;
  • Explain the process and importance of blood clotting;
  • Explain the causes and effects of heart attacks;
  • Use tables, charts and graphs to represent data on the circulatory system;
  • Describe the structure and function of the lymphatic system;
  • Describe how tissue fluid and lymph are formed.

Skeletal System

  • Identify the major bones of the skeleton;
  • Relate the structure of the skeleton to its functions;
  • Relate the structure of a typical bone to its functions;
  • Distinguish between bone and cartilage;
  • Explain the importance of cartilage;
  • Distinguish between tendons and ligaments;
  • Identify a hinge joint, fixed joint and a ball and socket joint;
  • Describe movement in the hinge joint and ball and socket joint;
  • Identify the biceps and triceps in the upper arm;
  • Explain how skeletal muscles function in the movement of a limb;
  • Explain the importance of locomotion to man;
  • Evaluate the factors which adversely affect the skeletal system;

Excretion and Homeostasis

  • Explain the importance of excretion in human beings;
  • Explain the roles of organs involved in excretion;
  • Relate the structures of the kidney to their function;
  • Relate the structures of the skin to their functions;
  • Explain the concept of homeostasis;
  • Explain the concept of feedback mechanisms;
  • Describe the regulation of blood sugar;
  • Explain the regulation of water;
  • Distinguish between heat and temperature;
  • Describe the regulation of temperature;

Coordination and Control

  • Describe the main divisions of the nervous system;
  • Describe the functions of the parts of the brain;
  • Distinguish between a neurone and a nerve;
  • Explain the functions of motor and sensory neurones and spinal synapses;
  • Describe the mechanisms of a reflex action;
  • Explain the process by which voluntary actions occur;
  • Distinguish between a voluntary and involuntary action;
  • Explain the response of the sense organs to stimuli;
  • Relate the internal structures of the eye to their functions;
  • Explain how images are formed in the eye;
  • Explain accommodation in the eye;
  • Describe the causes of, and corrective measures for eye defects;
  • Distinguish between endocrine (hormonal) and nervous control systems;
  • Identify the sites of hormone production;
  • Explain the roles of selected hormones in the human body.

Reproductive System

  • Distinguish between sexual and asexual reproduction;
  • Describe the structure and function of the reproductive systems in human beings;
  • Describe the menstrual cycle;
  • Explain ovulation, fertilisation, implantation and development of the embryo;
  • Describe the birth process;
  • Outline the importance of prenatal care;
  • Explain how birth control methods prevent pregnancy;
  • Explain the advantages and disadvantages of birth control methods;
  • Discuss the issues related to abortion;
  • Explain the importance of family planning;
  • Use tables, charts and diagrams to represent data.

 Heredity and Variation

  • Describe the process of mitosis;
  • Explain the importance of mitosis;
  • Describe the process of meiosis;
  • Explain the importance of meiosis;
  • Explain why genetic variation is important to living organisms;
  • Distinguish between genetic variation and environmental variation;
  • Explain the inheritance of a single pair of characteristics (monohybrid inheritance);
  • Describe the inheritance of sex in human beings;
  • Explain the concept of genetic engineering;
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of genetic engineering;
  • Use tables, charts and graphs to represent data on heredity and variation.

SECTION D: DISEASE AND ITS IMPACT ON HUMAN

  • Define the terms good health and disease;
  • Classify diseases;
  • Differentiate between the terms signs and symptoms;
  • State the main causes, primary symptoms and possible treatment of asthma;
  • Explain how asthma affects the respiratory tract;
  • Discuss the causes signs/symptoms, treatment modality and prevention of chronic lifestyle related disease;
  • Discuss the causative agent, signs, symptoms, prevention and control of infectious diseases;
  • Discuss the cause, symptoms, mode of action, prevention and control of HIV/AIDS.
  • Describe the effects of sexually transmitted infections (STI’s) on the pregnant mother and the foetus;
  • Discuss the impact of diseases on the human population;
  • Discuss the effects of malaria and dengue (strain I-IV) on the human body;
  • Explain the effect of vectors on human health;
  • Describe the life cycle of the mosquito and the housefly;
  • Explain the importance and methods of controlling vectors which affect human health;
  • Explain how and why personal hygiene is maintained;
  • Explain the methods used to control the growth of microorganisms;
  • Distinguish between disinfectants and antiseptics;
  • Explain the use of common antibiotics and antifungal agents;
  • Explain the types of immunity;
  • Distinguish between immunity and immunisation; vaccine and vaccination;
  • Discuss the use and misuse of drugs;
  • Explain the social effects of drug misuse on the individual, family and community;
  • Use tables, graphs and charts to represent data on disease and its impact on human beings.

SECTION E: THE IMPACT OF HEALTH PRACTICES ON THE ENVIRONMENT

  • Identify pollutants in the environment;
  • Discuss the causes of water and air pollution;
  • Describe the effects of pollutants on human beings and the environment;
  • Explain the methods of controlling pollution;
  • Describe the water cycle;
  • Describe simple ways of purifying water in the home;
  • Test water for bacteria;
  • Describe the processes involved in wide scale water purification;
  • Discuss the impact of human activities on water supplies;
  • Explain why contaminated water is detrimental to human beings;
  • Distinguish between proper and improper sewage disposal practices;
  • Explain the impact of improper sewage disposal practices;
  • Compare the treatment of sewage by biological filter and activated sludge methods;
  • Relate the parts of a pit latrine to their functions;
  • Explain why the siting of pit latrines is important;
  • Assess the use of pit latrines in the Caribbean;
  • Evaluate the efficiency of the methods of domestic refuse disposal;
  • Describe the operations at a land fill;
  • Discuss the importance of landfills in the Caribbean;
  • Evaluate the impact of solid waste on the Caribbean;
  • Analyse measures used to control solid waste volume;
  • Distinguish between  the terms biodegradable and non-biodegradable;
  • Use tables, charts and graphs to represent data on the impact of health practices on the environment.