- Locate places using four and six-figure grid references;
- Use a scale to measure the distance;
- Give direction in terms of compass bearing and the 16 points of the compass;
- Read and interpret conventional symbols;
- Reduce and enlarge a section of a map;
- Draw and interpret cross sections and sketch sections;
- Calculate gradients using ratios;
- Describe the following: drainage, vegetation, land use, settlement, communications;
- Describe land forms through the reading of contours;
- Explain the relationship among the patterns of: relief; drainage; vegetation; land use; settlement; communications.
- Locate a place from its latitude and longitude;
- Find the latitude and longitude of a given place;
- Calculate the time of places;
- Draw and sketch maps to show relative location and spatial distribution;
- Draw diagrams to illustrate geographical features;
- Locate territories in the Caribbean;
- Construct bar and line graphs and pie charts;
- Interpret tables, dot maps, chloropleth and isopleth maps, bar graphs (including population pyramids) and line graphs and divided circles;
- Collect, record and present information based on field work on at least one chosen topic.
SECTION 2: NATURAL SYSTEMS
- Theory of Plate Tectonics.
- Types of plate boundaries.
- Global distribution of plate boundaries.
- Caribbean and adjacent place boundaries.
- Formation and distribution of earthquakes, volcanoes and fold mountains.
- Intrusive volcanic features, (sills, dykes, batholiths) and extrusive volcanic features (cones and plateaux).
- Changes in intrusive and extrusive volcanic features over time.
- Definitions of denudation, weathering, mass wasting and erosion.
- Weathering types (physical, chemical and biotic).
- Processes of weathering, (carbonation, oxidation, solution, frost action, pressure release, temperature changes, biotic).
- Mass wasting (land slides and soil creep).
- Conditions influencing landslides and soil creep.
- The water cycle.
- How water flows on reaching the surface.
- River processes: Erosion, transportation, deposition. River valleys; Land forms–rapids, waterfalls, gorges, ox-bow lakes, flood plain, levees, meander and braiding (bars), river cliffs, point bar, deltas.
- Drainage patterns.
- Characteristics of limestone (chemical composition, structure, pearmeability).
- Processes occurring in limestone areas and land forms created both on the surface and underground, (swallow holes, caves, stalactites, stalagmites, pillars).
- Karst landforms in the Caribbean (conical hills and cockpits).
- Wave types (constructive, destructive).
- Wave processes and resulting land forms (cliff,notch, wave-cut platform, headland, and bay, caves, arches, stacks, beaches, spit, tombolo, bars.
- Types of coral reefs in the Caribbean (fringing, barrier).
- Location, distribution of coral reefs in the Caribbean.
- Conditions necessary for the successful formation of coral reefs.
Weather, Climate, Vegetation and Soil
- Differences between weather and climate.
- Caribbean weather systems (hurricane, tropical waves, cold fronts, anticyclones, ITCZ).
- Influence of relief on climate in the Caribbean.
- The components of an ecosystem-human, climate, vegetation, soil (living and non-living components).
- Location of equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions.
- Climates, vegetation and soil of the equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions.
- The relationship between the climate, vegetation and soils of equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions.
SECTION 3: HUMAN SYSTEMS
Population and Settlement
- Factors influencing population distribution and population density in a named Caribbean country;
- Factors affecting population growth in ONE Caribbean and in ONE developed country;
- Definition of urbanisation;
- Reasons for urbanisation in the Caribbean;
- Population growth of ONE Caribbean capital city within the last 20 years;
- Benefits and problems of urbanisation of capital city in objective 5;
- Ways of controlling urbanisation in the Caribbean;
- Patterns and consequences if international migration in one named Caribbean country within the last 20 years.
- Characteristics and relative importance of primary, secondary and tertiary economic activities to the Caribbean.
- Location of one example of each of the following economic activities: (1) one example of Primary- fishing or forestry or mining (bauxite or gold or oil and natural gas); (2) one example of Secondary- garment industry or food processing; (3) one example of Tertiary- tourism.
- Factors influencing the location of economic activity chosen in 10: physical, human and economic.
- Trends in economic activity chosen in 10.
- Challenges in each economic activity chosen in 10- globalisation, technology, marketing [for example, Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME), European Union (EU)] and sustainability.
- For the secondary industry chosen in 10, compare a named Caribbean country with a newly industrialised island either Hong Kong or Singapore.
- Importance of agriculture to the Caribbean region.
- Changing role of Agriculture, for example: trends in employment, contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the Caribbean, acreage, diversification, marketing arrangements.
- Location of commercial, arable and peasant farming in the Prairie Provinces of Canada.
- Characteristics of Commercial arable farming in the country selected three points above and Prairie Provinces of Canada.
- Trends in commercial arable farming in the country selected four points above and the Prairie Provinces of Canada.
SECTION 4: HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS
- Definition of a Natural Hazard.
- Impact of one of the following on life and property: volcanic eruption, or earthquake or hurricane.
- Responses to one hazard in a Caribbean country: Individual responses (preparedness, community involvement); National responses (national disaster organisation activities [for example, Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM)], role of national organisations.
- Regional responses [for example, activities of Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA)].
- Definition of Pollution;
- Types of Pollution (air, water and land);
- Location of area in a named Caribbean country where pollution is a major problem.
- Definition of Global warming;
- Long-term changes in global temperatures;
- Causes of Global warming;
- Consequences of global warming (for example, climate change and sea level rise in one named Caribbean country and either Mauritius or Maldives).
- Measures to reduce the impact (for example, forest conservation, use of renewable energy resources, changes vehicle emissions) in a developed country.
Coral Reef Destruction
- Causes of coral reef destruction (for example, sedimentation, sewage pollution and tourism).
- Consequences of coral reef destruction (for example, coastal erosion, decline in fish stock).
- Measures to reduce the impact in one Caribbean territory.
- Causes of deforestation (for example, squatting, lumbering, agriculture, mining).
- Consequences of deforestation (for example, loss of flora and fauna, soil erosion, flooding decline in underground water).
- Measures to reduce the impact of deforestation (for example, reafforestation, protected areas) in one named Caribbean territory.