Geography

Geography Syllabus

Geography Past Papers

SECTION 1: MAP READING AND FIELD STUDY

Given an extract from a topographic map, the student should be able to:

Given a photograph, the student should be able to:

The student should be able to:

SECTION 2: NATURAL SYSTEMS

Internal Forces

External Forces

  • Definitions of denudation, weathering, mass wasting and erosion.
  • Weathering types (physical, chemical and biotic).
  • Processes of weathering, (carbonation, oxidation, solution, frost action, pressure release, temperature changes, biotic).
  • Mass wasting (land slides and soil creep).
  • Conditions influencing landslides and soil creep.

Rivers

  • The water cycle.
  • How water flows on reaching the surface.
  • River processes: Erosion, transportation, deposition. River valleys; Land forms–rapids, waterfalls, gorges, ox-bow lakes, flood plain, levees, meander and braiding (bars), river cliffs, point bar, deltas.
  • Drainage patterns.

Limestone Environment

  • Characteristics of limestone (chemical composition, structure, pearmeability).
  • Processes occurring in limestone areas and land forms created both on the surface and underground, (swallow holes, caves, stalactites, stalagmites, pillars).
  • Karst landforms in the Caribbean (conical hills and cockpits).

Coasts

  • Wave types (constructive, destructive).
  • Wave processes and resulting land forms (cliff,notch, wave-cut platform, headland, and bay, caves, arches, stacks, beaches, spit, tombolo, bars.
  • Types of coral reefs in the Caribbean (fringing, barrier).
  • Location, distribution of coral reefs in the Caribbean.
  • Conditions necessary for the successful formation of coral reefs.

Weather, Climate, Vegetation and Soil

  • Differences between weather and climate.
  • Caribbean weather systems (hurricane, tropical waves, cold fronts, anticyclones, ITCZ).
  • Influence of relief on climate in the Caribbean.
  • The components of an ecosystem-human, climate, vegetation, soil (living and non-living components).
  • Location of equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions.
  • Climates, vegetation and soil of the equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions.
  • The relationship between the climate, vegetation and soils of equatorial, tropical marine and tropical continental regions.

SECTION 3: HUMAN SYSTEMS

Population and Settlement

  •  Factors influencing population distribution and population density in a named Caribbean country;
  • Factors affecting population growth in ONE Caribbean and in ONE developed country;
  • Definition of urbanisation;
  • Reasons for urbanisation in the Caribbean;
  • Population growth of ONE Caribbean capital city within the last 20 years;
  • Benefits and problems of urbanisation of capital city in objective 5;
  • Ways of controlling urbanisation in the Caribbean;
  • Patterns and consequences if international migration in one named Caribbean country within the last 20 years.

Economic Activity

  • Characteristics and relative importance of primary, secondary and tertiary economic activities to the Caribbean.
  • Location of one example of each of the following economic activities: (1) one example of Primary- fishing or forestry or mining (bauxite or gold or oil and natural gas); (2) one example of Secondary- garment industry or food processing; (3) one example of Tertiary- tourism.
  • Factors influencing the location of economic activity chosen in 10: physical, human and economic.
  • Trends in economic activity chosen in 10.
  • Challenges in each economic activity chosen in 10- globalisation, technology, marketing [for example, Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME), European Union (EU)] and sustainability.
  • For the secondary industry chosen in 10, compare a named Caribbean country with a newly industrialised island either Hong Kong or Singapore.
  • Importance of agriculture to the Caribbean region.
  • Changing role of Agriculture, for example: trends in employment, contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the Caribbean, acreage, diversification, marketing arrangements.
  • Location of commercial, arable and peasant farming in the Prairie Provinces of Canada.
  • Characteristics of Commercial arable farming in the country selected three points above and Prairie Provinces of Canada.
  • Trends in commercial arable farming in the country selected four points above and the Prairie Provinces of Canada.

SECTION 4: HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT SYSTEMS

Natural Hazards

  • Definition of a Natural Hazard.
  • Impact of one of the following on life and property: volcanic eruption, or earthquake or hurricane.
  • Responses to one hazard in a Caribbean country: Individual responses (preparedness, community involvement); National responses (national disaster organisation activities [for example,  Office of Disaster Preparedness and Emergency Management (ODPEM)], role of national organisations.
  • Regional responses [for example, activities of Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency (CDEMA)].

Environmental Degradation

Pollution

  • Definition of Pollution;
  • Types of Pollution (air, water and land);
  • Location of area in a named Caribbean country where pollution is a major problem.

Global Warming

  • Definition of Global warming;
  • Long-term changes in global temperatures;
  • Causes of Global warming;
  • Consequences of global warming (for example, climate change and sea level rise in one named Caribbean country and either Mauritius or Maldives).
  • Measures to reduce the impact (for example, forest conservation, use of renewable energy resources, changes vehicle emissions) in a developed country.

Coral Reef Destruction

  • Causes of coral reef destruction (for example, sedimentation, sewage pollution and tourism).
  • Consequences of coral reef destruction (for example, coastal erosion, decline in fish stock).
  • Measures to reduce the impact in one Caribbean territory.

Deforestation

  • Causes of deforestation (for example, squatting, lumbering, agriculture, mining).
  • Consequences of deforestation (for example, loss of flora and fauna, soil erosion, flooding decline in underground water).
  • Measures to reduce the impact of deforestation (for example, reafforestation, protected areas) in one named Caribbean territory.